Sunday, November 3, 2013

There is no free will, but you have a choice! (And the role of memes in choice-creation)

(This is the rough draft of the piece that became my INK Talk. It's more of a roughly summed up summary of the book I am currently writing. I have shared many inferences, without having enough space to elucidate on their logical proofs. Also, given the time and space constraint, I have not sufficiently established the relationship between culture and choice-expansion, but merely hinted at it. With my book, I also intend to spend a considerable amount of time deconstructing the memeplex of religious and political institutions, which again I have only cursorily hinted at here. Finally, one of the arguments made here is actually a simple observation that the existence of choice or the possibility to choose between existing choices is not in contradiction with determinism.)

"Free Will" by Nitin Zihani Chowdhary

As a filmmaker, I feel my job has many functions – to archive, to assess, to examine, to inquire, to challenge, to propose, to simulate, to stimulate, even hope to inspire, to analyse, to reject downright, to synthesise, aspire to be enlightened and share it, to interpret new data, to assimilate the most significant breakthroughs in our thinking and knowing into metaphors, analogies and narratives that domesticate the wild physics of the Higgs Boson particle and reconstruct time capsules so they are easier to swallow.

There are a few certainties. That’s good. That’s good to work with. One, we are all going to die. (Well, some of us might go on, if Kurzweil and some others have their way, but that’s going to take a while, so even if they are, most of us are going to die.) That sucks, but there’s something that sucks even more - Life is not teleological. That is, it did not evolve with a predetermined purpose (In a deleted conversation from Ship of Theseus, Cārvāka jokingly espouses the contrary view that the earth sprouted life to evolve into human beings, who can further construct technology to colonise other planets). Matter simmered in the boiling pot of the planet, hit by lightning and UV radiation for billions of years, passing through a godzillion reactions and their accumulated residue, leading to us. All meaning is an accumulation. All purpose must be invented.

Now, here’s my problem – I have been able to articulate it somewhat through a character in my film. The monk Maitreya says at one point “I guess we agree with reason, but now it’s a matter of disposition.” I agree with the nihilists and causal determinists completely, but my emotional makeup is that of a romantic, so what can I do about it? I thought I could put myself at the service of one of the many aspirations of life – and that is a proliferation of choices. An expansion of the scope of what's possible for an organism to do. As life evolves, memory systems and their interlinking co-evolve, helping the organism make more choices. So, I choose, or rather the cumulative decision making agency that is me, chooses to work in the field of memory, simulation and most importantly, meme-creation. For it’s ideas, metaphors, memes and memeplexes that shape our choices profoundly.

Aye, there's the rub. For in that sweep of determinism, what memes may come? If the parts are guided by laws of determinism and causality, how can the whole exhibit any freedom? It's of some significance that these parts themselves are wholes, that further have parts that are not guided by laws of strict causal determinism, but follow the freedom of quantum probability. But I am getting ahead of myself. Can the whole exhibit freedom, when the parts don't seem to? Something tells us, it does. We empirically experience choice. We experience impulse, emotion, reason, dilemma, ambivalence, conflict, and the relief of making the choice. Is it an illusion then? How could the whole be greater than the some of its parts? The answer seemed simple. There is the sum of all the parts, and there is the sum of all the interactions and relationships between the parts, there is also a sum of all the interactions with the environment of the parts, and the whole is a total of all these sums. That seems to me, to be the recipe for wonder, for consciousness, for free choice. When the parts stop interacting with each other, the sum stays, but the whole vanishes. And that is a dead parrot!

The human being is made of trillions of cells, and there are about ten times more bacteria in the human body than “human” cells. In the past centuries we thought of ourselves as monolithic entities, but now we know, we are entire ecosystems. So let’s take a whole, a hundred trillionth of a human being. A bacterium swimming smoothly in water – now let’s introduce a drop of acid in its environment. A mere contact with a single molecule of a fatal substance and it will tumble around and speed in the other direction. If we were to logically break down the steps between the contact and the action of tumbling, then we get – stimulus, contact / perception, reference to memory – in this case, a genetic memory of thirty six chemicals, recognition, inference, recall of response and finally, action / response. A simple if-then program that itself would have taken billions of generations to evolve (along with it's next consequential step - the dangling else) . This, understandably has happened through completely physical, causal “unconscious” processes.

What I can’t help but suggest is an approach of looking – that biology causes a substance interference in physical laws – by pitching one against the other. This is what I mean by that statement – if a micro-body that was a chemical imitation of the bacterium, were to come in contact with the molecule of acid, it would not be repelled by it. It would be engulfed, without resistance (much like a chemical equivalent of a bird will not rise against gravity and fly). So I am rephrasing choice as the possibility of tumbling – the possibility for the bacterium to not be engulfed by the fatal substance in its environment. So, while the laws that led to this simple if-then decision making system are deterministic, a choice is created by the very existence of the decision making process.

As life evolves into more complex forms, one more step gets introduced in this process – this step is learning – storage of new data, acquired within the lifetime of the organism. Memory evolved to supply useful information to the organism’s decision-making systems, so they can change their behavior to better suit their environment, or even predict the future based on patterns of the past. But memory itself is a metaphor, it’s a snapshot of reality. An intricate system of these snapshots acquired over a lifetime provide new updated information to life’s decision making agency, sometimes contradictory to the memory genetically inherited - causing conflicts between intuition and reason, the classical “heart” and the “mind”. 

Evolution of technology - either biological or human-created is exponential, but the timelines are drastically different. Life (bio-technology) evolves on a timeline of hundreds of millions of years, while technology produced by human beings (by technology here, I mean all forms of technologies - social, political, institutional, cultural, mechanical, digital, etc.) evolves on timeline of mere centuries and decades (and soon, mere weeks). Those alive today are both anatomically and neurologically similar to those around, say, twenty thousand years ago. The environments, however, have gone through radical shifts. One is likely to encounter more people in a mall or an airport than an ancestor did in an entire lifetime. Emotions are appeal systems (response recommendations), evolved over billions of years of experiences, that can be largely understood as two kinds of appeals - incentivising like joy, happiness, excitement, and warning appeals like jealousy, sorrow, anger, etc. Impulses and emotions that evolved in the forest and savanna environments could be found to be misguided in post-agrarian societies, while many more could be argued to be increasingly vestigial, and in many cases, socially detrimental. This vast magnitude of variables cause conflicts, contradictions and dilemmas.

To better understand the nature of information density in memories and memes, let’s take the famous case study by the nobel winning ethologist Tinbergen, (subsequently cleaned up recently by Ten Cate, reconfirming the inferences of the original experiment). Within an hour of emerging from its shell, a Herring seagull chick finds its mother’s large yellow beak (with a big red dot on it) and begins pecking. It is then that the mother feeds it. Tinbergen presented a seagull chick with a disembodied beak of an adult Herring gull. The chick still pecked at the beak, hoping to be fed by it. Tinbergen had discovered the essential properties, or the recipe, for a beak that tells a chick what to peck at: high visual contrast (between the dot and the base colour of the beak), rectangular elongation and thinness, and the color red (that was replaceable with dots of other colours, as long as the contrast was maintained. The red dot, however yielded maximum interest). So he took a long stick, painted it red, and showed it to the chicks. They excitedly pecked at it. Then he added three white lines to the bottom, to enhance the contrast, and he reduced the thickness by half. When he showed this object to the chicks, they went absolutely insane, pecking in every direction as quickly as they could. Dumbs chicks, eh? Does it remind us of any of our obsessive behaviours? The way we respond, perhaps, to oil in our food, to sex and violence in our cinema, to the promise of eternal survival in the religions?

The results of this experiment have been interpreted in many ways, and have informed us profoundly about the nature of perception, memory and response. I am extrapolating a particular association from the results - That there is clearly an evolutionary function of maximising information density in small units. Information is resource expensive and biological technology precedes digital technology in this optimisation - maximising the experiences and inferences that can be contained in smaller and smaller units of memory. It's resource wise to save the information of the unique part to recognize the whole - It's resource wise for the Herring gull to store the information of the unique beak to recognise the entire bird, as the chances of an ethologist playing a disembodied beak prank in its natural environment are zero. This content-resource optimisation is the prime causal force behind the phenomenon of super-stimuli. There are many recipes to achieve this distillation - reduction, isolation (a synecdoche of a unique part representing the whole), grouping, exaggeration, imitation and condensing vast amounts of information into codes.

A recurrent aspiration, and one of the many common aspirations at that, of all intellectual endeavor – of arts and sciences – is the maximization of content density per unit. A piece of literature is great when there is a high density of experiences contained in a few passages, a photograph great, when it transcends the mere documentation of the moment it's capturing, a scientific equation great, when many other inferences are contained within it... (The information of the entire organism itself comes from a single genome).

One of my favourite parables is that of the cartographer. The emperor of the kingdom summons the great cartographer to chart a map of the kingdom. The cartographer sets upon the supertask and starts making a most intricate map. When the map is finally made, the women and men of the kingdom gather at the public hall to witness it. Some are enlightened, some awed, some confused, and some criticize the map to be fallacious or inadequate. It doesn’t begin to do any justice to the vast, rich complexity of the kingdom, some feel. The cartographer is even more aware of the shortcomings of her own map. She builds another map, this time far bigger, comprehensive, three dimensional, with miniature automata, with interactive parts and environments, replete with fountains for streams, mounds for mountains... builds towers for people to go up to, and get a bird’s eye view of their universe - a total perspective vortex. People realise their insignificance in the larger scheme of things. Family feuds end, disagreements settle, some leave the kingdom in search of meaning, some turn to science, some to religion, and a few suicides occur. But the cartographer is still unamused... She keeps building a map, more and more intricate, bigger and bigger... till the time the map replaces the kingdom, itself.

How much of the territory can truly be represented by the map? How much information can be packed into one small unit of culture? How large would the map be if it had to be really, really accurate? Can it be read without a legend? A really dense map with a huge variety of symbols will require an elaborate legend, a map for the map.  

And then there are maps of maps of maps, each level aiming towards further distillation. An equation like e = mc2 will be meaningless without a decoding legend. If Munch's “The Scream” was a dense map of experience, response, mood and context, but one had never come across it, then a Matt Groening joke on it will be lost on that person, much like this allusion will be lost on those in the audience, who have never seen an episode of the Simpsons.

I want to examine the role of information packaged in memes in the expansion of the scope of choices. More experience means more foreknowledge, more foreknowledge means an increased capability to calculate and choose accordingly for the decision-making agency. Lifetime of experiences and inferences (true or fallacious, benign or detrimental) can be packaged in capsule sized units of culture, highly condensed, easily transported, and generations have to learn only the decoding systems.

(One of the most thriving memes of known history is the idea of transcendence - God, soul, heaven, after-life, immortality, even martyrdom. We find ourselves pecking at this shtick with the insane obsession of the Herring gull chick. The promise of survival beyond individual death or dispersion appeals to the most primal driving force of existence. Promises of transcendence have evolved out of the thriving desire to ward off the inevitable threat of individual death. Most systems propose a more or less perfect immortality – one where memories, hopes, desires, knowledge and even experiences survive the death of the physical body. An engagement and acceptance of this meme makes death particularly irrelevant. The upholding of the promise at the cost of individual sacrifice becomes acceptable. Individual sacrifices even become necessary in validating the promise.)

If there are a trillion trillion parts in the equation, a trillion trillion variables, and their near infinite permutations and interactions, a vast scope of probability emerges - that can be decided for and against, all evolved out of causal deterministic forces yes, but allowing for very, very real choices. We can rephrase Cogito ergo sum, to "I think I choose, therefore I choose". The I that did not choose to be here, just happened to have arose from a really competitive sperm, born into situations, not chosen either. But the scope of choice expands for some of us, and can be expanded for everyone, if we understand the significance of technological evolution in choice-proliferation. That’s what we do, when we travel, learn, eat, make love, hoard up, give up, read stories, watch films, sign into social contracts, choose political or philosophical affiliations … we protect and expand the choices.

I left the title of my talk a bit incomplete for a bumper sticker effect (or rather a cheap play of syntax). It should have been “There is no free will, but you have a choice – well, some of you, some of the time.” 

Friday, August 2, 2013

Long note - updated

I have spoken, at length, about the reasons why I usually decide to develop one idea over another – I chew on a philosophical problem for a long time, keeping it in a mental register till I arrive at a narrative metaphor best suited for resolving it. When I am able to come up with a narrative idea that seems to be in continuum with a philosophical conundrum I have had, it simply “clicks”. If I find out even a moment or a scene I am considering to narrate having been already done in some other film, I immediately replace it with another solution. 

I have spoken in several interviews about the genesis of some of the ideas in Ship of Theseus. It will take more than a few hundred pages to talk about its entire etymology, so I won’t attempt that here. I will cursorily speak about the evolution of just one narrative strand.

In the year 2005, as Khushboo and I were making our featurette length short film Continuum, we had started developing a magical-realist, urbsurd and a plenitudinous world of a blind hockey player. There were several magical worlds and characters that surrounded her (like a jeannie, who has lost his memory, a covert activist of a hero, etc.). Like many Hungarian masters, we were aspiring to use sport as a laboratory human experiment. Only, in our case, this socio-political allegory was to trigger off a dialogue on (and marginally in favour of) social anarchism.

The character of our story played in hockey tournaments for the visually impaired, for a team that invariably always lost. The central conceit of the plot was to follow her through a vacation, carefully avoiding central action points, only to return to the field with her – this time winning game after game for her team. The audience is invited to solve this (rather easy to decipher) enigma. What happened on the vacation? It turns out, not as a grand point of reveal, but as a completely understated easy-to-miss disclosure, that she had a cornea transplant. (One absurdly kitsch joke that Khushboo liked to crack about the character was in the form of a dialogue between her and her lover when they first meet. “Tumhari aankhen bahot khoobsurat hai.” “Thank you, par meri nahin hain.”)

A social phenomenon that we were attracted to was that of anonymous groups – complete strangers providing solace, understanding and advice to each other based on one common (often traumatic) experience (or malady). We made our protagonist, the blind hockey player, a participant in an anonymous group. But what could possibly be binding them? We had heard about alien abductee anonymous – fascinating, but obviously so. We thought of one thing that binds them all (won’t give spoilers here) and suddenly realized that this narrative idea is a great metaphor for micro-level (cell and bacteria) replacement problem we had wanted to resolve.

This clicked! As we progressed in the story, there were obvious places to go to, and we let ourselves go there – post-surgery readjustment issues. We thought we would play with the trope, and see if we can reinvent it somehow. As we delved further in our story, we increasingly found ourselves migrating further and further towards the anonymous group. We were suddenly curious about all the other members. Who were these people? What organs had they received? What were their post-surgery readjustment issues?

This had opened up a fascinating world for us to explore. We dropped the jeannie and the activist altogether. We knew that all our narratives now meet in the anonymous group. We wrote a funny scene - in one of their meetings, they decide to name themselves. This was the beginning of Ship of Theseus.

The two major plot points – sight restoration and post-surgery readjustment issues were already present in our story about the blind hockey player. Now the second part of this note, is a bullet – I will elaborate upon it later, as well –

I have spoken at length about how my DoP Pankaj Kumar urged me to look at the life and work of the celebrated Slowenian visually impaired photographer Evgen Bavcar, with the hope of diverting my attention from the character of the blind hockey player, to the world of blind photographers. I was reluctant initially at engaging with, what I felt, was a slightly "sensational irony", given the intensely oxymoronic nature of its central conceit. I also felt that there is a sense of a tokenist novelty here - while it's a surprisingly common identity - there are thousands of visually impaired artists in the world - the desire to capture the experience in an external visual "memory box" is clearly understandable. Having once decided to engage with it, we decided to dive as deep as we possibly could into it.

Once you have a blind protagonist in your film, how do you fight the cliché of the restored eyesight? I decided I won’t. So the challenge in front of me was to take up the work of Evgan Bavcar, go along with the tropes of sight restoration and post surgery conflict – use it as a narrative layer for all the questions I wanted to explore about art and the subjective experience of beauty.  

I have spoken about my references at length - about Daniel Kisch and Ben Underwood, the two visually impaired men with a highly evolved faculty of echolocation. I have spoken about the ideas of echolocation that I learnt from the work of evolutionary biologists (especially the chapter on echolocation in The Blind Watchmaker), and how I have tried trigger that dialogue through the film. I have spoken about the photorapher’s aspiration of condensification and the aspiration of all artists to achieve maximum content density per unit of art, and how that informs the work of the blind photographer in my film. I have spoken at length about the idea of accident vs intent, the intention of simulation and metaphor in photography (a deleted scene that was shown in an early trailer starts with a quote from Jean Baudrillard), and the possibility of arriving at an objective scale of measuring beauty, and its relation to the work of neuroaestheticists like V S Ramachandran and Semir Zeki. A small capsule of our research work with a Mumbai based blind photographer Mahesh Umrrania has been made available online.

For the work and the process of blind photographers, we drew heavily from Pete Eckert and the Sight Unseen collective of visually impaired photographers in California (the light-painting photographs that Aliya takes in the film are inspired from Eckert’s processes.)

And for those interested in finding more about the post-surgery readjustment problems, I recommend they have a look at my real original reference – the essay titled “To See or Not to See” by the neurologist Oliver Sacks in his book “An Anthropologist on Mars”.

Thank you, everyone, for the intense curiosity and the interest.

Wednesday, July 31, 2013

Ship of Theseus - share this post!

Together, we have proven a point - that Indian audiences are not only ready for, but directly demanding insight, invention, beauty and meaning in their cinema. The need for a robust cultural environment has been vocalised at the box office. It's loud and clear, and has forced a valid response - an expansion of the film's release to more cities. The wall of presumption has been dented, now it needs to come down. Let's not accept anything lesser.

Thanks to you, the film will now release in seventeen new cities next Friday (Surat, Goa, Rajkot, Mangalore, Mysore, Chandigarh, Lucknow, Bhopal, Indore, Nagpur, Raipur, Vizag, Coimbatore, Patna, Jaipur, Trivandrum and Calicut, in addition to the existing nine cities). We need to put in our best to keep this dialogue alive. This is about the survival and growth of all that is relevant to us, culturally.

We are more than just a film now. We don't know if this is going to be seen, in retrospect, as a small step or a giant leap. We do know that this would be seen as an opportunity for a movement - either taken or missed.

We need to come together to evolve a new ecosystem for profound, complex, meaningful, relevant, rigorous, experimenting, inquiring and beautiful cinema to exist and be accessible to each one of us - a privilege we don’t have yet. We can't afford hoardings or TV spots (the ones we have, were offered for free). We will depend on you to carry this further.

If the film has resonated with you, or held any meaning for you, then we request you to volunteer (especially, if you live in any of the cities the film is releasing in).

Here's what you can do to partake in, what we naively, ambitiously hope would be, a cinema resurgence in urban India -

- Make Ship of Theseus banner the Cover Photo on your Facebook profile.

- Share Ship of Theseus related content (reviews, posters, trailers, interviews, quotes from the film) on your Facebook personal profile, as well as the Facebook groups you are a part of.

- If you or any of your friends manage a Facebook Page, get Ship of Theseus trailer shared through that page.

- Change your twitter handle to Ship of

- Regularly RT tweets from @sotfilm and share posts from

- E-mail the film's trailer, social media links and show timings to everyone you think would be interested in the film.

- Set your gmail status message with a link to the Ship of Theseus trailer/page.

- If you have a Youtube Channel, place the Ship of Theseus trailer link in the annotations to your videos.

- Share material on your blog - trailers, posters and links. Put up the SOT banner linking it to the FB page.

- Initiate discussions around the film in the online forums you are part of.

- Embed Ship of Theseus trailer on your blogs, websites, articles.

- Gift a screening of the film to someone you feel should watch the film.

- Organise group screenings of the film, followed by post screening discussions. You can shoot the video of the discussion, and we'll share it online.

- Call at least one person you know, who hasn't yet seen the film, and tell them about it, if it's not an intrusion.

- Innovate & improvise!

- Share this post!

Here are some relevant links -

Get images you can share from

Official trailer

The atheist prayer

Recommendation video

Dialogue promos

Some early teasers

Our early short films and other work at -

Some third party content about us

Friday, July 19, 2013

10 Great Films!

I was recently requested by a site to list films I have loved in the last few years. It was a great exercise to prepare it. I felt dually obliged - to list five films that I consider masterpieces, for those who are not yet familiar with the work of Tarr or Haneke; and to make a list of five lesser known first or second features that are truly powerful pieces of cinema. With the exception of Kusturica's film, all the others on the list are films released in the last few years.

With all this thought put into it, I was shocked to see a disrespectfully edited and brainlessly truncated version on some sponsor's website! That is why I decided to share the complete piece on my blog - 

Du Levande (You, the Living)
Roy Andersson

50 hyperreal and urbsurd (urban absurdity, a word coined by Khushboo Ranka to catalogue the specific genre of surreal ironies manifesting in urban settings) vignettes seem to traverse a range of human misery, from alienation to apocalypse, and still manage to leave you with a sense of wonder (and even joy). The coldness of the fourth wall is reinstated in every frame, distancing the audience from the mirror to their desires, anxieties, insecurities and epiphanies. The cast of non-actors are studied pathologically in a sort of a human zoo. Every frame is a stunning piece of art, with a colour palette that can be described only as edible or dreamable, held together by the zombie like pale make-up worn by the actors.

The Turin Horse
Bela Tarr & Ignes Hranitzky

If nightmares are our mind's way of preparing itself for eventualities, this one prepares us for the worst - the end of the world, the suspicion that daily rigmarole is indeed absent of purpose, and the realisation of the complete absence of meaning. The tragedy of day to day existence is the other side of the inch by inch destruction of the world. From the haunting images by Fred Kelemen to the hypnotic score by master composer Vig Mihaly, the genius of Tarr and Hranitzky is in setting up the right triggers for every member of the audience to have their own personal enlightenment. If there is such a thing as a peaceful, soothing death, Bela Tarr's masterpiece is an insight into what that might be like. (At the risk of committing blasphemy, may I suggest that you hold a loved one's hand, as you walk on this edge of the world).

Emir Kusturica

This is one loud drunken Balkan stupor; baroque, gaudy, insane, epic, plenitudinous, layered with vodka wisdom and plum rakija insights into all things primitive - love, betrayal and war; produced by a country that exists no longer, directed by the super brat of Eastern European cinema. It is a celebration of devastation, a distilled (to some, reduced) polemic absent of political chicanery, a panegyric for innocence and longing. This is grandeur upgraded, it's Fellini ver. 2.

The White Ribbon
Michael Haneke

The American polemist Sam Harris, in his bullet thesis arguing the impossibility of free will, draws upon an episode of mindless cruelty to penetrate into the nature of choice and action, and the forces that guide them. It doesn't seem like a coincidence that Haneke chose a very similar episode in Funny Games to deconstruct the triggers in our environment that compel us to choose the course of action we take. From The Seventh Continent to The White Ribbon, the subject of Haneke's very disturbing constructs of violence, guilt, evil, fascism, conformity, and fanaticism, is indeed the suspicion of the absence of free will. With clinical observation and organised spontaneity, Haneke constructs a psycho-socio-political Rube Goldberg machine that has been set to motion by forces beyond the individual capacities of his characters, and will inevitably lead to consequences that are now a part of our shameful past. Haneke, while seemingly cold and punitive, is also an author of great empathy and redeeming power.

Holy Motors
Leos Carax

"All art aspires to a condition of music." - Walter Pater
In that, Holy Motors achieves the state of Baroque music. It is a thoroughly engaging, surprising, ecstatic, tragic, playful and self reflexive magic trick, constantly playing on your expectations from the real and the imagined. It invites you to participate in solving a complex puzzle, only to realise that the scope of the puzzle is far beyond the riddles presented by Carax and his namesake character (Leos Carax is Le Oscar ax). This film is a field day for a neuroscientist, especially a neuro-aestheticist. Wonder occurs when the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, and in that, Holy Motors is also truly wonderful.


Gyorgy Palfy
Surreal, grotesque and incredibly inventive, Taxidermia is a bizarre tale of the limits of the human body, a rich allegory of post war Hungary, and a stunning visual experience that is also an endurance test.

Giorgos Lanthimos
Dogtooth gives us a glimpse of a new way of looking, while challenging (if not shattering) our long held beliefs of filial obedience, compliance and sanctity. It's a social satire with two perfectly delivered experiences - suspense and wonder.

Gulabi Gang
Nishtha Jain
My favourite Indian film this year is a richly detailed portrait of Sampat Pal, the founder of the courageous women rights organisation Gulabi Gang, a document of their struggles against rural Indian caste politics and corruption, and a re-invention of the detective genre.

The Act of Killing
Joshua Openheimer
A human experiment in continuum with the infamous Stanford prison experiment and the Milgram experiment, only far more complex (and certainly not unethical). This film might well be the beginning of a long pending trial.

Ilya Khrzhanovskiy
Three people walked into a bar. Not a joke, but what a yarn! Old women in a village mourn the death of a young woman, their livelihood depended on her. It involved chewing bread into wet spongy paste, with their teethless gums, that she would use to make dolls. Was she one of the discarded clonal twin? (An indescribable film clearly - let's watch it as we anticipate the director's epic human experiment "Dau").